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Pi Gamma Mu Conventions

Pi Gamma Mu conventions

2011 TRIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION

Presentations

ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE CONVENTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
• Panel #1:  Equality and Inequality
• Panel #2:  Psychology, Emotions, and Human Relations
• Panel #3:  International Relations and International Leaders
• Panel #4:  Legal and Social Systems
• Panel #5:  Government and Public Policy
• Panel #6:  Spies and Terrorists

If the presenter's E-mail address appears alongside the abstract, he or she is receptive to receiving requests for a softcopy of his or her research paper.

Panel #1:  Equality and Inequality

● Lisette Alvarez, Florida State University

“Justice for Jessica:  A Human-Rights Case Study of Media Influence, Gender Violence, and the Rule of Law in India”

● Susan Bearns, University of Maryland – University College

“White Hegemony and the Perpetuation of Native American Mascots in Sports”

Native American images and references in sports are ubiquitous in the United States and have been used for over a century. Over the past several decades, Native Americans and other interested parties have attempted to raise awareness about the offensiveness of using humans as mascots, saying that this practice reinforces stereotypes and promotes racism. However, many sports fans and team franchises hold a different opinion and are resisting change, citing insufficient harm and the importance of tradition. In an effort to understand both sides of the controversy more fully, this paper examines the historical antecedents and social dynamics that help explain this phenomenon and inform current perspectives. Next, a consideration of the opposing arguments in this debate illustrates the reasons why the public discourse has been so difficult and divisive. Ultimately, it is reasoned here that the continued practice of using Native American mascots, despite protests by the depicted group, is an expression of the power differential in the social hierarchy; in other words, the dominant group reserves the right to decide what is morally and ethically acceptable and fair. This paper concludes by acknowledging the limited success of recent initiatives to end the practice of using Native American mascots in sports; noting the deleterious effects of categorical thinking for both the targeted group and those learning, accepting, and using stereotypes; and suggesting that consensus depends on a fuller understanding of the issues, the ability to see from another perspective and to gain insight, and the willingness to act in the face of that greater awareness. 

● Ashley R. Davis, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

“Successful Neoliberalism?  State Policy, Poverty and Inequality in Chile and Mexico”

his paper examines Chile and Mexico’s neoliberal economic transformations. It looks both at the aggregate results and disaggregated effects, specifically the outcomes of policies on the domestic populations measured by levels of poverty and income inequality. Recent studies have revealed a correlation between economic development and support for democracy and concluded high levels of both inequality and poverty decrease support for democracy.  Additionally, inequality and poverty has spurred mobilization of protest movements, like those that toppled the Ecuadoran, Argentine, and Bolivian pro-market governments.  Further, studies have shown high levels of inequality impede economic growth and discourage greater reductions in poverty.  Finally, there is evidence that inequality has an impact on social factors such as health, education, crime and violence.  Based on evidence from Chile, I find that government investment in social programs is necessary for reducing poverty and income inequality. After comparing the economic results obtained by both Chile and Mexico, I observed that the level of real and minimum wages play a crucial role in poverty and income inequality.

● Angela Haney, Howard Payne University

“Title IX and Women’s Sports”

● Audra Lins, Ursinus College

“Modern-Day Slavery in the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave:  Human Trafficking of Children”

Throughout the past century, the international community has grown dramatically larger and its issues more pressing. Globalization has forced an international community to develop. However, while globalization has created a more integrated human race, it has also created complex and disturbing problems. Very few individuals ever thought that slavery would exist in the twenty-first century; nevertheless, the complex nature of international community has created the demoralizing problem of human trafficking. Human trafficking of children specifically for sex and labor has been on the rise in recent history. Typically, young girls are forced into street prostitution at twelve, although some as young as nine. Many are the subjects of child pornography which is internationally produced and obtained. While many Americans are aware of this problem they assume that human trafficking of children only occurs outside of the US and they cannot make a difference. Nonetheless, in 2007 it was estimated that between 14,000 and 18,000 children were trafficked into America. Even American children can be victims of human trafficking.

Internationally and domestically children are being exploited for sex. It has become a commercial trade. While the majority of American citizens are appalled by the human trafficking, they are reluctant to take action against the perpetuators. Many of the victimized children are criminally charged and placed in facilities. Instead of the trafficked children being seen as victims they are deemed criminals in the judicial system. Also, these children are often considered to be illegal aliens and have to face the problems concerning illegal immigration. Whereas globalization has made international human trafficking a possibility, it has also inspired humanitarian law. The establishment of the International Criminal Court, that prosecutes individuals against humanity internationally, has recognized the importance of the international community. While the international law sector has increased in the US, the appeal has not grown large enough. The United States has not signed on to CRC and the domestic laws do not fully protect the children. In fact, often the United States system further exploits the children. The US government creates a double standard when they insist that other countries must enforce laws against human trafficking of children, but they do not follow the practice they preach. I am not suggesting that it is simply the neglectful politicians in the US government but that the structure of the system and the attitudes of the public are forcing this problem to be ignored. My project further investigates the problem, assesses the attitudes of the American public, and suggests different options that are possible within the United States governmental system.

● Robert E. Powell II, Arkansas State University

“The Legacy of Colonialism on Democratic Governance”

Past scholarship on the legacy of colonialism has centered upon democratic survival or economic performance of former colonies, and neglected governance as an aspect of colonialism and democratization.  The findings of this paper contradict earlier findings by Bernhard, Reenock, & Nordstrom (2004).  First, the Spanish did not outperform the British holistically.  Second, the British arguably have a better relationship between the state and society, which should be reflected in the Voice and Accountability indicator.  According to the models, the British have no statistically significant legacy for better or worse; Voice and Accountability was slightly positive, and the rest were slightly negative.  Third, the French and Spanish have statistically significant negative colonial legacies on Voice and Accountability.  Fourth, the French have statistically significant negative colonial legacies on Government Effectiveness and Control of Corruption.  Fifth, the French and Spanish have statistically significant negative colonial legacies on Regulatory Quality and Rule of Law.  Sixth, the Dutch have a statistically significant positive colonial legacy on Voice and Accountability.  Lastly, population has a statistically significant negative impact upon governance across the board.

[email protected]

Poster:  ● Kaylee White, Holy Family University

“Millennium Developmental Goals:  Progress on Goal 8 – To Develop Global Partnerships”

Although the Millennium Developmental Goals were set in the year 2000 to be completed by 2015, there has been limited success in accomplishing these goals to date. The eight Millennium Developmental Goals are fighting hunger, educating the world, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, advancing environmental well being and, the final goal, promoting global partnerships. Global Partnerships or Multilateralism is a necessity for all global decision making and development. Without global partnerships, the other seven goals will never be sustainably successful. This analysis will stress the need for all members of the world to work together to accomplish the Millennium Developmental Goals. It will highlight various strategies for accomplishing these goals. The analysis will also highlight what still needs to be accomplished, which countries are in greatest need of assistance, and what needs to be done in the future to create a more
hospitable place for future generations.

 

Panel #2:  Psychology, Emotions, and Human Relations

● Eric J. Banks, Coppin State University

“A Role Model’s Effect on the Values of a Young Adult”

This research will explore how role models fit into the equation of nature versus nurture.  As children grow, they upgrade from fictional heroes to heroes they feel share common values with them; usually an athlete or music artist. At some point, these so-called heroes transcend from being just heroes to becoming role models. The educated few are rarely seen as role models, unless they have recently done something that captured the public’s attention. Young adults choose their role models on the basis of what they see and not necessarily what is said about someone. In the society that we live in the absence of a role model, television, the internet, and even peer pressure will take over become the role model. Then the judgment of success takes place. Evaluating how much money one has, how many diamonds one can wear, what they have done, whether it be sell CDs, win championships or sell drugs, and in terms we can understand and make the call on their ability to be a role model.

This social problem affects three demographics; the first is elementary and middle school students ages 7-14, high school students ages 15-18, and grade school dropouts between the ages 16-25. I expect that, in questioning, the first two demographics will give slightly educated, but sarcastic, answers to the questions asked. The high school dropout demographic is expected to give the most honest answers. I will begin by use of a questionnaire and clarifying those answers during a group discussion. From this study I have gathered that the gap between what one would find as a suitable role model and what one would judge as unsuitable is blurred by deferring values and bridged by the reality of knowing just what type of person they really are.

● Matthew Donovan, University of South Florida

“The Effect of Common Factors Among Therapies Compared with Specific Techniques”

● Isaac French, Wayne State College

“‘Not Again’:  A Case Study on College Hookups and the Regret that Follows”

● Ashley Hines, Bradley University

“Are Repressed Memories Real or Fake?  Taking a Closer Look at Both Ends of the Spectrum”

● Janet T. Jones, Coppin State University

“The Father‑Daughter Relationship”

● Kaitlyn Kelm, Howard Payne University

“Constitutionality of Physician-Assisted Suicide”

● Gina Riley‑Daly, Walden University

“The Effect of Home Schooling on Levels of Intrinsic Need Satisfaction in Young Adults”

The study proposed uses a quantitative design to assess whether or not home schooled young adult’s needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness are better satisfied as compared to young adults who were not home schooled. Competence, autonomy, and relatedness are necessary conditions for intrinsic motivation to lead to successful outcomes. Intrinsic motivation, within this proposal, is defined and discussed using Self Determination Theory.

Previous research has indicated that the benefits of being intrinsically motivated are numerous, and include better conceptual understanding, greater creativity, and improved problem solving abilities. One of the primary advantages of home schooling that has been cited in the literature is the ability to control the environment so that a home schooled student develops greater autonomy and self direction, which are hallmarks of high levels of intrinsic motivation.

It is not known if home schooled young adults’ need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness are better satisfied as compared to young adults who have not been home schooled.  Without this information, stakeholders such as educational researchers, school administrators, and parents may not have all the information they need in order to maximize the success of young adults.

Motivational orientation has been highly correlated with academic success. If intrinsic motivation is the future of education; and if the three tenets of competence, autonomy, and relatedness are required facilitate intrinsic motivation, then it becomes important to study whether or not home schooled young adults’ need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness are better satisfied in comparison to young adults who were not home schooled.

Approximately 100 young adults between the ages of 18-25 will participate in the study. Fifty of those adults would have been traditionally schooled; fifty would have been homeschooled for at least 6 years. The Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS) will be used to measure levels of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. A MANOVA will be conducted to compare levels of competence, autonomy, and relatedness in those who have been traditionally schooled versus those who have been home schooled.

The results of this causal comparative study have the power to not only enhance the learning environment of home schoolers; but can also change the way stakeholders in the traditional educational realm view the effects of intrinsic need satisfaction on student success.

Panel #3:  International Relations and International Leaders

● Gabe Gauthier, Wayne State College

“Charlemagne:  A Military and Political Genius who Shaped Medieval Europe”

This study of Charlemagne focuses on the growth of his empire through political means and military conquest, and the significance of his reign. Since Charlemagne’s politics and military interventions coincide with each other, the two are discussed simultaneously. The presentation then highlights Charlemagne’s impact on Europe.

Beginning with Charlemagne’s inheritance of Neustria and parts of Aquitaine and Austrasia, this research examines his interactions with his brother, Carloman, and other regional rulers, such as Desiderius, Widukind, and Pope Leo III. The relationships Charlemagne developed varied greatly, from a botched marriage involving a king’s daughter to a prolonged, irritating war led by a rebellious heathen.

His military campaigns show his defensive focus on maintaining territory he already holds and expanding his empire when appropriate. His reasons for going to war ranged from putting down a revolt in his own territory to conquering a group of people who raided the Frankish countryside. However, he also uses his conquests as a means to spread Christianity, particularly in Saxonia where war lasted over thirty years.

By the time of his death, Charlemagne accomplished much more than expanding his territory. Because of his close relations to the Papacy, his empire eventually transformed into the Holy Roman Empire, which held significant political clout in Europe for the next nine centuries. He also spread the Germanic language throughout his empire, which became one of the major languages in Europe. His holdings over most of western and central Europe and alliances with regional rulers provided political stability in Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. Finally, his reign linked the Roman civilization to the modern world by uncovering part of what happened during the Dark Ages.

● David Hans, Wayne State College

“The Ability of Ghana to Function as an Independent State Among the Community of Nations”

● Maura K. James, Catholic University of America

“Hope Diminished:  The Palestinian‑Israel Peace Process and the Oslo Accords”

This paper aims to study the Oslo Accords in detail and argues that the accords not only inevitably failed but also that they made daily life more difficult for Palestinians resulting in the derailment of the peace process.  The Oslo Accords diminished the renewed hope the Palestinians felt after the first Intifada.  Before studying the accords in detail, which will illuminate the flawed nature of the agreement, to understand the Palestinian/ Israeli conflict one must have a firm grounding in the region's history, from the colonialism period to present day.  Examining the long background of failed negotiations and regional factors such as Arabism, Islamism and democracy, and Orientalism provides a more conclusive picture of the accords.  The Palestinian/ Israeli conflict has played a larger role in the Arab/ Israeli conflict.  In fact, the plight of the Palestinians has influenced movements, such as Hezbollah, Egypt's Nasser and political philosophies, and Arabism.  Palestinians are still a regional factor and concern for Arabs, and it is a conflict that must be resolved before regional peace can be achieved.

Although Oslo failed, it only diminished hope, it did not kill it.  Today organizations such as the Holy Land Trust and Grandmothers for Peace are working all over Israel and Palestine towards a peaceful solution.  There is renewed hope in nonviolence, as evidenced by the growing number of nonviolent organizations, and Israelis are learning the costs of occupation.  Though prospects for an agreement seem dim, the people on both sides of this conflict are learning through each other and working for a resolution.  Like after the 1967 war when Palestinians realized they could no longer rely on their Arab allies, Israelis and Palestinians are turning to themselves to make peace.  After the Six Day War Palestinians relied more heavily on social organizations to become the political and civic voices of the population.  Today, too, both Israelis and Palestinians are working together within nongovernmental organizations to move forward.  It increasingly appears that only a movement from the people will change the status of the peace process, and the people are stirring.

[email protected]

● Marjorie Jeffrey, Wofford College / North Georgia College & State University

“Churchill and the Jews”

Throughout his life, Winston Churchill demonstrated a fierce devotion to the Jewish people and to the cause of Zionism; indeed, it is undeniable that the state of Israel would not have come into existence in 1949 without Churchill's unwavering aid and support. The reason for this devotion was because Churchill believed that Western Civilization (the civilization which brought forth the British Empire) owed the Jews a great debt that it could never repay; that is that this small, wandering tribe grasped the idea of one God and the idea that faith and reason were essentially compatible. Upon this system and faith was built all of Western Civilization. He believed that they were a very exceptional people, and that this particular race was owed, at the very least, a land that they could call their own. The return of the Jews to their homeland was, for Churchill, a political and philosophic good. This paper explores key events in Churchill's political life that demonstrate his devotion to the Zionist cause; these key events include the circumstances surrounding the Balfour Declaration, the Cairo Conference, the Peel Commission, the Atlantic Charter, and the aftermath of World War II.

● Josh Pittman, Campbell University

“Turkey‑Israel Relations”

Turkey and Israel have historically had a good relationship; the Ottoman Empire accepted Jews into its borders when Europeans were evicting the descendants of those who killed Christ, and since the Cold War, Turkey has been the closest Muslim ally to the U.S., Israel, and the West in general. Recently, however, this relationship has become less secure. Turkey and Israel have downgraded their diplomatic relations, Turkey has canceled military training maneuvers with Israel and the U.S., and Israel has never apologized for attacking a Turkish aid flotilla to Gaza. This paper seeks to trace the history of Turkish-Israeli relations and to understand the recent changes in congeniality between the two countries.Ultimately, the rise of Prime Minister Erdogan must be seen as the Turkish equivalent of the Arab Spring and the advent of a less elitist form of democracy in Turkey. The Turkish public, it seems, never supported Turkey’s familiar relations with Israel, but it was not until Erdogan’s election that concern with popular opinion outweighed the desire to align with the West.

Poster:  ● Bruce George, Valdosta State University

Canceled

Poster:  ● Rachel Russell (in absentia), University of Maryland – University College

 “Hezbollah:  Political Islam and the Party of God”
Panel #4:  Legal and Social Systems

● Dr. Matthew A. Anderson, University of Phoenix / Lincoln University

“Exploration of Child-Welfare Staff Experiences”

Retention and personnel issues are a national crisis impacting staff and families in the child welfare system.  Six social work supervisors and six caseworkers who deliver services in foster care agencies participated in phenomenological interviewing in efforts to explore the leadership perceptions and experiences of social work staff in child welfare agencies to assist leaders in improving retention, job satisfaction, performance and awareness of leadership.  A qualitative method with a phenomenological design was used to gather, analyze, and interpret the lived experiences of caseworkers and casework supervisors.  Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) (Taylor & Hallam, 2008), and Moustakas (1994) simplification of the Van Kaam (1959) seven step phenomenological analysis was used to gather data and collection information from participant accounts and descriptions.  The study suggested social exchanges characterized by an emphasis on rewards and penalties prevail in the child welfare settings compared to social exchanges centering on support and empathy.  Preferred and expected leadership behaviors expressed by caseworkers are the same behaviors exhibited by transformational leaders.  Research in this study showed job satisfaction is relative to the amounts of support, empathy, and individualized consideration exhibited by supervisors toward caseworkers.  This study suggests training in leadership and leadership applications is necessary for social workers thrust into management positions in child welfare agencies.  To mediate the rigors of work, and improve retention, child welfare agencies are recommended to invest in in-house training, Employee Assistance Programs (EPA), and emotional intelligence training for social work supervisors and caseworkers.

[email protected] or [email protected]

● Daneis Barber, University of Nebraska – Omaha

“The Summer Olympics:  A Behind-the-Scences Look at the Decisions for the Olympic Games”

● Stephen Gassaway, Western Carolina University

“Climbing the Ladder of Organizational Project-Management Maturity” 

Organizations in business and government are faced with the difficult challenge of keeping pace in a rapidly changing world.  Successful organizations provide stability in employment and the economy while organizations that fail result in lost opportunities.  To prevent such losses, the following research suggests that a dynamic development of Project Management principles can stabilize an organization’s growth and reduce the likelihood of failure.  This research has taken two different paths, a review of the current literature available in scholastic journals and a survey distributed out to contemporary business professionals.  The literary research helped to determine the appropriate organizational project management maturity model (OPM3) to be used for comparison against the collected surveys.  Over 50 such surveys were gathered and evaluated for quantitative and qualitative relevance in how modern organizations support the usage of project management practices in their day-to-day business affairs.  The results gave a quantitative perspective on where organizations stand within the OPM3 model as a whole and as groups based on size.  The selected OPM3 model was the following: 1-PM Unaware, 2-PM Aware, 3-PMO Enabled, 4-PMO Active and 5-PMO Proactive.  It was no surprise to learn that as companies grew in size and complexity so did their need for a higher level of sophistication (or maturity).  Finally, many subjective comments were taken from survey participants and were organized into a road map for success on how to apply the OPM3 model to large, medium and small organizations.  This can help to determine where an organization’s optimal level should be and improve their likelihood for implementing and sustaining long-term, organizational growth.

● Nina Hazen, Augusta State University / University of South Carolina – Aiken

“Program Evaluation:  Juvenile Arbitration Program of Aiken County, S. C.”

● Elvis Tillett, Grambling State University

“Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Juveniles in Corrections:  A Louisiana Perspective”

● Thomas Warzywak, Wayne State College

“Dueling in Early National America:  A Culture of Political Madness”

● Minmin Zhang, Franklin & Marshall College

“Confucianism and Democracy”

Do countries with different cultural traditions end up cultivating different understandings of democracy? This paper explores how a Confucian ethos shapes the Chinese understanding of democracy. As the debate over the compatibility of liberal democracy with Confucian values unfolds, it rapidly becomes polarized. One side of the debate claims that democracy embodies values such as equality, liberty and self-government that are antithetical to Confucianism. The other side holds a more positive view, arguing that the two ideologies are compatible in many ways and that no fundamental cultural obstacle can impede the democratization of any society. This project attempts to unpack the opposing, monolithic arguments by examining the plurality of classical Confucian values and their implications for liberal democracy. In order to provide a systematic comparison of democracy and Confucianism, I chose three concepts---institutions, equality, authority--- that can characterize democracy and that have Confucian counterparts. Taking a cultural approach, I analyzed how those characteristics exemplify democracy and how they are translated by Confucianism. As a result, this paper found that the relationship between Confucianism and liberal democracy was dynamic and complex. While there are overlaps of Confucian and democratic values over the ideas of moral equality and frank speech, the differences are in fact most striking between Confucianism and liberalism. But these differences are by no means antagonistic. They provide spaces for mutual contribution and remedies for each other’s weakness. Therefore, this paper sheds a new light on Confucianism and its potential to serve as an alternative to liberalism in approaching democracy.

Poster:  ● Kaela Hellstrom, University of Nebraska – Omaha

“Tribulations with the Financing, Internal Company Disputes, and Construction of the Central Pacific Railroad” 

In the following paper one of my objectives was to find out how the Central Pacific Rail Road came into existence.  I wanted to know why there was a need for the Central Pacific Rail Road.  I also set out to discover how an operation of this magnitude, could even be accomplished.  Another main topic of interest, I wanted to investigate, was how could the many obvious obstacles such as financing, construction, and labor be overcome to finish this type of mammoth size project.  The last inquire I wanted to for fill, was to find out who were the major players in the building of the Central Pacific Rail Road and what were their interests in the project.

After conducting many hours of research and trips to the library, I could answer many of my questions about the topic of the Central Pacific Rail Road.  Most of my research was literature based, which including primary sources.  Upon my research I learned that there was a need for easier transport across the country.  The man who dreamed up the idea of the Transcontinental Rail Road was Thomas Judah, and in turn this man convinced the men known as the “Big Four” to invest the start up money.   These men gathered up the necessary money from the government.  With this money they were able to overcome the other obstacles that stood in their way.

The main conclusion that I came upon, with the completion of my paper, was that the construction of the Central Pacific Rail Road was riddled with deceitfulness, mostly by the “Big Four.”  They pushed Thomas Judah out of the picture, and tried to use the rail road as a scheme to monopolize the western rail road system.  I also concluded with the idea, that this would be a reflection of what was to come shortly after, with big business and monopolizing early in the next century.

Poster:  ● Jonathan McCloskey, Washington & Jefferson College

American Needle, Inc., v. NFL et al. (2010):  Antitrust Law Applied to Professional Sports”

Poster:  ● Amanda M. Wolcott, North Georgia College & State University (co‑authored)

“Mapping the Social Capital of Regional Drug Court Participants”

Inspired by literature that suggests that drug users tend to have impoverished social networks that resist positive change, this study explores a regional Drug Court program to measure the social capital of its participants. For these purposes, social capital is considered the sum of 4 different types of social resources: normative, cultural, economic and emotional. The Drug Court participants’ social capital is assessed and compared to a control population sample in order to gauge the difference in networks and provide feedback to the Drug Court on what areas of social capital to focus on through its program to reduce recidivism rates. For this study, 36 participants of the Lumpkin County Drug Court were compared with 36 individuals randomly selected of a community sample. All 72 participants were administered surveys that assessed their social capital in the areas of financial resources, normative resources, cultural resources, and emotional resources.

The study revealed that drug court participants have higher normative pressures than the community sample, yet less normative and financial networks. The drug court participants’ social networks were also comprised of over 30% mandatory networks (drug rehabilitation programs) that could account for the higher normative pressures with less normative networks, and could result in a deficit in social capital when the participant completes the drug court program.

Panel #5:  Government and Public Policy

● Caleb David, Washington & Jefferson College

“The Constitutionality of the Individual Mandate:  A Study of the Commerce Clause”

● Adam Howe, Eureka College

“Struggle Over Power:  The Struggle Between the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court During the Great Depression”

● Elizabeth Pesek, University of Nebraska – Omaha

“In the Face of Change:  Immigration Politics in Modern France Seen as the Effects of History”

● John Quinto, California State University – Fresno

“California Higher Education Legislation”

This mixed methods study examined the effectiveness of California’s Higher Education Cal Grant Program enacted by passing Senate Bill 1644. The study compared pre-SB 1644 (1990-2000) and SB 1644 (2001-2009) to investigate whether SB 1644 legislative objectives were met: (1) increase higher educational opportunities and (2) lower student loan debt. Instrumentation included archival data sets and student debt reports from the California Postsecondary Education Commission, and interrupted time series design (ITSD) was used to assess change.  Additionally, three individual interviews were conducted to identify factors that led California legislators to enact entitlement higher education grants while other states were embracing merit grants. Interviewees were selected based on expertise; national expert on higher education student access (Dr. Heller), California State expert on national and state higher education policy (Ms. Deborah Cochrane), and the Executive Director of California Student Aid Commission and team member involved in writing SB 1644 legislation (Ms. Diana Fuentes-Michel).

Results revealed that the first objective was met and the second objective showed promise. The second objective was effective for the first 3 years lowering average student debt levels of graduates entering re-payment; however, data were unavailable for all years in order to complete a thorough study of this objective. In order to make informed decisions, Lawmakers must understand the effect of their policy decisions and whether or not policy is meeting its intended objectives. Two factors (values and resources) emerged regarding what influenced California legislators to embrace entitlement higher education grants, which may have implications for national and state policy legislation.

● Alexander Smith, Washington & Jefferson College

“China, the United States, and the Financial Crisis:  An Examination of Both Countries’ Stimulus Plans Following the 2007 Recession”

This paper focuses on both China and the United States and their respective economic policies during the recent global recession.  As both of these countries are global economic leaders, it is important to understand past economic policies and their results in order to put in place successful policies for the future.  This paper will provide a background of both countries’ economies, as well as illustrate a snapshot of these economies prior to the global economic crisis.  Additionally, how the global financial crisis affected each country, and the resulting stimulus plans that each country put into effect as a result of the recession will be analyze. Lastly, this paper will offer insight into the economic recovery of these countries, as well as what the future holds for the future prosperity of each country.

Poster:  ● Jonathan C. Najarian, Marywood College

“A Primer on New Urbanism”

Panel #6:  Spies and Terrorists

● Riah Deane, Wayne State College

“The Tri‑Border Area and Terrorism:  What Factors Make Terrorist Activity a Threat in the Tri‑Border Area of South America?”

● Whitney Mayer, Ursinus College

“Bioterrorism in International Politics”

Since the September 11th attacks, there has been an increasing concern about bioterrorism and finding appropriate methods that might be used to combat a bioterrorist attack. Bioterrorism is a very cost effective form of terrorism compared to nuclear terrorism and the use of chemical weapons. In addition, the comparative ease of obtaining the materials for a biological weapon makes bioterrorism a more appealing method for terrorist organizations. Although a current bioterrorism preparedness plan is in place, there is still a lack of funding and many members of the medical profession are not properly trained to neither administer the proper treatments nor properly educate their patients. In order to combat this problem, the United States needs to increase funding to allow medical personnel to be properly trained, help to increase the security around the Russian smallpox stronghold, and allocate more funding to encourage new avenues of research to combat bioterrorist attacks. In addition to the threat of a bioterrorist attack, terrorist organizations could utilize pathogens that affect our livestock and crops to initiate an agroterrorism attack. An agroterrorism attack could cause great economic damage and cost our nation billions of dollars as well as increase unemployment in the agricultural industry. The current conditions that our livestock are kept in make them particularly susceptible to infection. This, combined with farmers’ lack of knowledge of signs of agroterroism and the various pathogens associated with it, could greatly curb response time that would be necessary to contain an agroterrorism attack.  In order to prepare for the advent of an agroterroism attack, the United States should allocate funding to better educate farmers as well as veterinarians, increase our supplies of animal suitable vaccines, and provide incentives for cleaner farm animal habitats. Although implementing policies that curb agroterrorism and bioterrorism require a large initial investment, the increase in national security they provide for the future will be invaluable.

● Hannah Monroe‑Morse, University of Maryland – University College

“Russian Intelligence-Gathering in the United States”

The government of the United States has been combating Russian espionage for over nine decades. Over the years, Russian spies have gained access to some of the highest levels of the American government.

Russian intelligence gathering is nothing new. The Soviet Union began infiltrating the American government to obtain secrets in the early 1920s. This infiltration heightened during World War II when several American spies working for the Russians obtained valuable information about how to build an atomic bomb. Soviet activities continued throughout the Cold War and into the twenty first century. Intelligence experts believe there are more Russian spies in the United States today than there ever has been in US history.

The KGB has naturally played a prominent role in Russian intelligence gathering. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the KGB was renamed the SVR in an attempt to distance the organization from its crimes of the past. KGB/SVR agents usually recruit high ranking officials in the government as well as scientists, military leaders, and other individuals of importance and offer them money in exchange for secrets. The KGB officer becomes this recruit’s handler waiting for him or her to move up in ranks so as to have access to sensitive information.

The Rosenbergs were dedicated to communism and its goal of setting up a communist state in America. Because of this desire, they gave crucial information regarding the atomic bomb project to the Russians. Robert Hanssen sold his country out for $600,000 because of greed and anger against the FBI. The recent capture of eleven Russian illegals also gives us fascinating insight into how Russian illegals collect and transfer information to Moscow.

Russian espionage is a growing problem in the United States and must be taken as a serious threat. Steps must be taken to protect ourselves by regulating Russian immigration into the country. The government and private institutions must be alert to the signs of espionage by scrutinizing their employees’ behavior, handling classified information properly and utilizing more comprehensive security background checks.

[email protected]

● Chandler Raine, Howard Payne University

“Fright or Flight:  The Effect of Terrorism on the U. S. Transportation Industry”

● John A. Taylor, Western Carolina University

“The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC):  A Threat Against the United States”

Since the events of September 11, 2001, the United States has realized it can no longer afford to take a reactionary stance to terrorist events and must become proactive in deterring, detecting, investigating, prosecuting, and punishing terrorists, terrorist organizations, and their supporters. The first step is properly identifying those individuals and organizations with terrorist intentions and then further identifying which ones pose the greatest threat to our nation in order to best formulate the most efficient and effective methods in dealing with them. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) has emerged as one of the most dangerous terrorist organizations known to the U. S. government. Understanding the ideology, history, and likely future of FARC is the second step towards protecting our nation. Then, only through an assessment of the abilities and likely targets, can the United States adequately prepare and institute the most appropriate position against the terrorist organization.

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